This paper presents an ontology of ubiquitous learning based on three dimensions of ubiquity: temporal, semiotic, and spatial ubiquity, and two dimensions of learning: entities and technologies. A simple taxonomy is used to denote each dimension. Thus the ontology has five dimensions with multiple categories denoting each dimension. A natural language description of ubiquitous learning can be concatenated by combining a category from each dimension with suitable conjunctive words and phrases. Four illustrative descriptions are as follows:
• Ad hoc knowledge acquisition at fixed locations by individuals using passive technologies.
• Continuous knowledge application at mobile locations by societies using intelligent technologies.
• On-demand knowledge acquisition at variable locations by organizations using interactive technologies.
• Planned knowledge application at mobile locations by groups using active technologies.
These four with 380 other combinations derived from the ontology represent a closed, complete description of ubiquitous learning. The ontology can be refined, modified, and extended by changing its dimensions and taxonomies. The ontology provides a simple method of systematically representing and analyzing the complexity of ubiquitous learning comprehensively.
|Keywords:||Ontology, Complexity, Ubiquitous Learning, Ontological Analysis, Evidence Based Medicine|
Professor, Information and Decision Sciences, College of Business Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA